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95 Of Sulphureous Acid Gas 97 Symptoms produced by the Acrid Poisons 98 Lesions of Texture produced by the Acrid Poisons . 142 Observations 146 Of the Laurel (Prunus Lauro-Cerasus of Lin. At seven o'clock he began to experience a weakness in his posterior extremities: he 5 vacillated in walking. Observations 1 135 Observations 140 Of the Prussic Acid HI Action of the Prussic Acid upon the Animal Economy . 147 Action of the distilled water of the Laurel on the Animal Economy 148 Observations , 153 Of the Oil of Laurel 154 Of the Watery Extract of Laurel 155 Action of bitter Almonds on the Animal Economy . 170 Lesions of Texture produced by the Narcotic Poisons . 171 Treatment of Poisoning by the Narcotics 172 1st. Of Chlorine dissolved in Water (fluid Oxygenated Mu- riatic Acid) x 183 4th. The following day he took a little food, and made his escape. At six in the morning, a robust dog was made to take the fluid obtained by treating an ounce of white hellebore by boiling water. The oesophagus was then tied : in five minutes the animal made efforts to vomit. 24 Action of the Flax-leaved Daphne on the Animal Economy 25 Of the Palma Christi (Ricinus) ......... At noon, the efforts to vomit were renewed frequently : the ani- mal supported himself with the greatest difficulty ; he was nearly insensible. The mucous membrane of the stomach was slightly inflamed ; the interior of the rectum appeared of a cherry-red colour ; very slight alteration appeared in the other parts of the digestive canal, the lungs shewed here and there some livid patches ; they were dense, and but little crepitating. At five in the morning, the cellular texture of the thigh of a small dog, was sprinkled over with two drachms of the powder of black hellebore root, the strength of which had already been exhausted by boiling water : the edges of the wound were then brought together by a few stitches. It was necessary however to combine the most powerful anti-spasmodics with the evacuating plan, in order to restore Ribergue to perfect health." ( Medecine Legale, already quoted, torn. They will be found described at length in a very excellent Memoir of M.

These symptoms were combated with oxycrate, and the patient was perfectly restored." * 3rd. Grunwald has seen the decoction of the leaves of this plant, administered in a glyster, give rise to a furious deli- rium.*! That the juice and decoction of the root of black Henbane in full vegetation, produce serious symptoms when introduced into the stomach ; but that their effects are less if employed in the beginning of the spring. The next morning the animal was again made to swallow sixteen drops of the same poison. Dissertation Inaugurate sur FAcide Prussique f Aug. This thesis contains a very great number of interesting facts. This fact agrees with the experiments of the cele- brated Fontana,* in which the heart of several frogs ceased to contract when a few drops of the cherry laurel were let fall upon them. The animal died twenty-one minutes after the injection. Robert has exposed successively birds, rabbits, cats, and dogs, to the aperture of a matrass of the capacity of two litres, containing air mixed with Prus- sic Acid Gas ; all these animals died in the course of two, four, six, eight, or ten seconds, opening their jaws, and rendering a great quantity of saliva. Robert has also caused dogs and cats to swallow Prussic Acid dissolved in water and in alcohol, and obtained results similar to those we have described in the foregoing experiments.* OBSERVATIONS. For more than six hours, I experienced a very remarkable anxiety of the praecordia, alternating with a slight pulsative pain in this part, which was not rendered more sensible by pressure." 2nd. Fueter communicated to me the fol- lowing fact, which has since been inserted in the Annates de Chimie of the month of October, 1814. B., Professor of Chemistry, left from forgetfulness a flask containing alcohol saturated with Prussic Acid; the servant girl, seduced by the agreeable smell of the liquor, swallowed a small glass of it. Scharinger, Professor at Vienna, prepared, six or seven months since, some Prussic Acid pure and concentrated; he diffused a certain quantity of it upon his naked arm, and died a short time after. This shrub grows spon- taneously near the Black Sea, in the neighbourhood of Tre- bisonde. At the end of half an hour the animal vomited a tolerably large quantity of alimentary matter.

The whole of the digestive canal was inflamed ; the inflammation was greater in the large, than in the small intestines ; several portions of the latter presented alternately a state of constric- tion and relaxation ; there was no gangrene : forty-two hours after death the limbs were still flexible. It has likewise been seen, after its use, that persons have lost their hair, nails, and even the epidermis which covers the whole body. 335, 138 hurried, great difficulty in the functions of hearing ; in short, almost all the symptoms which characterize an attack of apo- plexy, except the stertor and distortion of the mouth. When they were restored by appropriate remedies, they saw objects at the first moments double, then they appeared to them of a scarlet colour.* 7th. Fifteen minutes after, the animal rose up, passed some urine, experienced an opistho- tonos, and in half an hour was recovered. L 146 frequent, convulsive movements took place in all the muscles of the body, and the pupil was dilated. Coullon says, page 39, " I have swallowed suc- cessively twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, eighty, and eighty- * Annates de Chimie, month of October, 1814. I felt, during a few minutes, a heaviness of the head, and slight cephalalgia, which appeared to be seated under the hairy scalp of the sinciput. Calyx bell-shaped, caducous, with five lobes : corolla of L 2 148 live petals : fruit fleshy, round, smooth, somewhat furrowed on one side ; stamina of indeterminate number ; flowers in a pyramid, white, but not very bright : bark smooth, of a greenish brown colour : leaves permanent, simple, entire, ob- long, firm, shining, petiolated, sometimes variegated with white, sometimes with yellow, furnished with two glands on the back, or on their inferior surface.

There were no visible symptoms at the expiration of eight hours. The white Henbane ( Hyociamus albus ) is likewise extremely poisonous. A part of it was put into the ship's coppers, and the remainder into those of some of the subaltern officers. In a short time they experienced vertigoes, vomitings, convulsions, gripes, and copious stools ; which, as they seized the whole ship's company, determined them to fire a gun, and make all the necessary signals for call- ing on board the absent boats. Picard arrived on board, and perceived the second gunner Ribergue, making a thousand grimaces and contortions, very much resembling the Danse de Saint-Guy. " There comes on them," says he, " a trembling, and feebleness in the legs ; old dogs are five or six days without eating or drinking, and in the end die.

Vicat has therefore been led into an error by asserting that this poison inflamed all the intestines except only the rectum. 69.) 9 and distended with serosity : they were sufficiently crepitat- ing ; the wound was very little inflamed. The same experiment was repeated upon a small young dog, with six grains of the same powder. When taken in the dose of twenty-five grains, it has produced lethargy, convulsions, subsultus tendinum, and in- sensibility ; in another instance, its use destroyed the faculty of deglutition, produced delirium, and suppressed the voice : symptoms which, indeed, were not of long duration.* 2nd. Fodere, professor of the School of Medicine of Strasbourg, by Dr. " In the month of April, 1792, a large quantity of Hen- bane was carried by mistake on board the French Corvette, La Sardine, which the sailors had gathered in one of the islands of Sapienzi in the Morea, where the vessel chanced to be. de Voi- lemont has given the decoction of this root to dogs.

Observations 86 Chemical History of Nitrate of Potash 90 Of Oxygenated Muriatic Gas (Chlorine) 91 Action of Gaseous Chlorine on the Animal Economy . 92 Action of the Fluid Chlorine on the Animal Economy . The mucous membrane of the rectum was of a red colour tolerably bright : the lungs exhibited livid spots ; they were dense, and but little crepitating. At eight in the evening, three drachms of the powder of white hellebore root, the soluble parts of which had been completely separated by boiling several times over in water, were applied to the cellular texture of the thigh of a small weak dog.

These symptoms went on increasing, and the animal died at eleven o'clock. The stomach contained a tolerably large quantity of thick mucus : it was very little inflamed.

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH, BY JOHN AUGUSTINE WALLER. A few hours after having gone to bed, some of them experienced vertigoes, others a burning of the tongue, lips, and throat ; there were some who ex- perienced severe pains in the iliac region, and in all the joints : the intellectual faculties and the organs of vision, were per- verted in others ; they could no longer read correctly, without adding some words ; they gave themselves up to actions that were mad and ridiculous. At the end of half an hour, she rose up, and appeared to suffer pain in the belly ; was frightened at the least noise, sought dark places, and was all in a tremor. On opening the bodies, no lesion is discovered in the digestive canal ; the right ventricle of the heart is still contracting at the end of twenty or five and twenty minutes, whilst the left no longer exercises any motion ; the veins contained in the thorax and abdomen, liver, kidneys, right auricle and ventricle of the heart, are distended with blood ; the whole arterial system is empty ; the lungs are more or less spotted ; the brain appears in its natural state ; sometimes it is somewhat softer, and the vessels of its base rather distended ; the muscles are pale and irritable for some time by Galvanism. Twenty-seven drops of this acid, beiug injected into the anus of a small cat, produced some vomitings and convulsions; this last symptom was more intense when twenty-seven drops of the same poison were injected into the abdomen ; vomitings and convulsions were likewise produced by its injection into the synovial capsule of the knee, and into the vagina. The Prussic Acid, brought in contact with the dura mater , or with the nerves of the arm, produced no serious symptom ; the same took place at the tarsal articu- lation of a cat, strongly secured above the kuee, and plunged for some time into this acid. Twenty drops of Prussic Acid intro- 144 duced into the stomach of a rabbit, killed it in three minutes. The mouth remained open ; the heart contracted immediately after death; but the auricles gave no sign of motion. ACTION OF THE DISTILLED WATER OF THE LAUREL ON THE ANIMAL ECONOMY. Thirty-five minutes after the operation, he made several circular turns in the laboratory ; his head seemed to be heavy ; his extremities grew feeble, first the posterior, then the anterior ones ; he could scarcely support himself.

OF THE FACULTY OF PARIS, PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY AND NATURAL PH1IOSOPIIY. Wepfer relates, that several monks made a repast on the roots of wild endive, amongst which were mixed by mis- take two roots of Henbane. * Several practitioners have remarked symptoms of poisoning after the administration of a glyster prepared with the extract of this plant. Instantly, respiration accelerated, very strong cries, convulsions, opisthotonos, then emprosthotonos ; its fore paws placed above the head, general tetanus, pupils dilat- ed, ears cold, urine copious, general paralysis, tongue hang- * These experiments were made with Prussic Acid, prepared accord- ing to the process of Schede, and consequently containing a great deal of water. Five or six minutes after, respiration difficult, trismus, subsultus teudinum. When thirty or forty drops of Prussic Acid are administered to dogs or to cats; they utter cries more or less strong, are agitated by convulsive movements, and die six, twelve, or fifteen minutes after the ingestion of the poisonous substance. The£e animals die also when the Prussic Acid is applied upon their eyes, or injected into the anus, or into the abdomen. A carp was made to swallow twenty- four drops of Prussic Acid ; sensibility was extinguished im- perceptibly, and the animal died at the end of an hour. The blood drawn from the animal after the injection coagulated without pro- ducing any crust, whilst that drawn before the operation had one ; there were bubbles of air in the heart. A very strong dog, submitted to one of these experiments, presented after death, the following results : brain sound, exhaling the odour of Prussic Acid ; tongue soft, bluish, and hanging out of the mouth ; bloody mucosities in the ventricles of the larynx; mucous membrane of the trachea scattered over with reddish streaks ; the capil- lary system was injected; lungs of a bright red; aortic cavi- ties of the heart filled with blood of a deep red colour ; that contained in the aorta and its principal divisions was also of the same colour ; the venous blood had the appearance of a fluid in which some liver had been dissolved ; the lungs, heart, and blood, exhaled the odour of Prussic Acid ; the same phe- nomena appeared in the liver and muscular flesh ; no altera- tion in the abdominal organs. At the expiration of two minutes, she fell dead, as if she had been struck with apoplexy. It is cultivated in gardens ; its flowers and leaves have the flavour of the bitter almond. Three minutes after, he threw up by the mouth some greenish, glutinous, and frothy matter.

Arum Maculatum, Dracunculus, Dracontium, Colocassia, Esculentum, Virginicum, Arborescens, and Seguinum . He died on the sixth day, and it was im- possible on dissection to discover any alteration. The same experiment was repeated upon another small dog, with three drachms of the same powder, which had not been boiled a sufficient time in water to deprive it of all its soluble parts : the animal died at the end of thirty- six hours : he did not begin to feel the symptoms of poisoning until ten hours after the application of the poisonous substance. (Vicat, Histoire des Plantes Vent- neuses de la Suisse, p. Shortly after, these persons were seized with a general coldness, and their bodies became covered with an icy sweat ; their debility was extreme ; they were almost in a state of insensibility ; and their pulse could scarcely be per- ceived. Black hellebore ( Helleborus niger) belongs to the Polyandria Polygynia of Lin.

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