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The retreat was accelerated as sea levels rose and floated glacial termini.

Estimates of a fully ice-free coast range between 16k While most of the archaeological community is in general agreement that the Americas were settled by migrants from northeastern Asian populations, the chronology of the migrations, the source populations that contributed to the migrations, and their migration routes remain uncertain.

While much of the coastal plain was covered with piedmont glaciers, unglaciated refugia supporting terrestrial mammals have been identified on Haida Gwaii, Prince of Wales Island, and outer islands of the Alexander Archipelago.

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Estimates of the final re-submergence of the Beringian land bridge based purely on present bathymetry of the Bering Strait and eustatic sea level curve place the event around 11,000 years BP (Figure 1).

Ongoing research reconstructing Beringian paleogeography during deglaciation could change that estimate and possible earlier submergence could further constrain models of human migration into North America.

Diverse, though not necessarily plentiful, megafaunas were present in those environments.

Herb tundra dominated during the LGM, due to cold and dry conditions.

Models of molecular evolution rates are used to estimate the ages at which Native American DNA lineages branched off from their parent lineages in Asia and to deduce the ages of demographic events.

One model based on Native American mt DNA Haplotypes (Figure 2) proposes that migration into Beringia occurred between 30k and 25k cal years BP, with migration into the Americas occurring around 10k to 15k years after isolation of the small founding population.

Modern biochemical techniques, as well as the accumulation of archaeological and geological evidence, have shed progressively more light on the subject; however, significant questions remain unresolved.

During the Wisconsin Glaciation, varying portions of the Earth's water were stored as glacier ice.

Stones described as probable tools, hammerstones and anvils, have been found in southern California, at the Cerutti Mastodon site, that are associated with a mastodon skeleton which appeared to have been processed by humans.

The mastodon skeleton was dated by thorium-230/uranium radiometric analysis, using diffusion–adsorption–decay dating models, to 130.7 ± 9.4 thousand years ago. Waters commented that "To demonstrate such early occupation of the Americas requires the presence of unequivocal stone artefacts.

The continents of North and South America were settled by natives from Asia between 10 and 20 thousand years ago after they crossed a land bridge that formed between Alaska and far northeastern Siberia due to the lowering of sea level during the last ice age.

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