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The spatial-temporal changes in the Pu main depot in the Black Sea ecosystem.

The studied radioecological characteristics of Pu allowed us to define the type of plutonium biogeochemical behavior in the Black Sea as a pedotropic one.

Thorium's radioactivity was widely acknowledged during the first decades of the 20th century.

Pure thorium is very ductile and, as normal for metals, can be cold-rolled, swaged, and drawn.

At room temperature, thorium metal has a face-centred cubic crystal structure; it has two other forms at exotic conditions, one at high temperature (over 1360 °C; body-centred cubic) and one at high pressure (around 100 GPa; body-centred tetragonal).

Thorium forms eutectic mixtures with chromium and uranium, and it is completely miscible in both solid and liquid states with its lighter congener cerium.

All but two elements up to bismuth (element 83) have an isotope that is practically stable for all purposes ("classically stable"), with the exceptions being technetium and promethium (elements 43 and 61).

The results of this complex radioecological monitoring of Pu contamination in the Black Sea and their analysis makes it possible to understand the plutonium redistribution pathways which will enable to carry out the tracing of its migration within the ecosystems.

The anthropogenic plutonium isotopes are important geochemical tracers for environmental studies.

After thorium, there is a new downward trend in melting points from thorium to plutonium.

The number of f electrons increases from about 0.4 to about 6, due to the itinerance of the f-orbitals, increasing hybridisation of the 5f and 6d orbitals, and the formation of directional bonds resulting in more complex crystal structures and weakened metallic bonding.

To study the composition of Pu isotopes in the ocean, thus to identify the sources of radioactive pollution, sediment core samples were collected in the Central Pacific by R/V Hakuho Maru in the KH-04-5 cruise.

The activity concentrations of Pu atom ratio were determined using a sector-field inductively coupled mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) combined with a high efficiency sample introduction system (APEX-Q).

Thorium is a moderately hard, paramagnetic, bright silvery radioactive actinide metal.

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