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Uncalibrated radiocarbon ages can be converted to calendar dates by means of calibration curves based on comparison of raw radiocarbon dates of samples independently dated by other methods, such as dendrochronology (dating on the basis of tree growth-rings) and stratigraphy (dating on the basis of sediment layers in mud or sedimentary rock).Such calibrated dates are expressed as cal BP, where "cal" indicates "calibrated years", or "calendar years", before 1950.Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
"Radiocarbon ages" are calculated from f M using the exponential decay relation and the "Libby half-life" 5568 a.
The ages are expressed in years before present (BP) where "present" is defined as AD 1950.
If such a sophisticated method is so flawed, geologist Dr.
Steven Austin rightly wonders, "Has anyone successfully dated a Grand Canyon rock? The validity of the calculated date can be no stronger than the weakest link (weakest assumption) used in the calculation.
The Carbon-14 age estimating method is, at best, only useful for estimating the age of things that are thousands of years old, not millions or billions.
And it does not work on rocks or thoroughly mineralized fossils; it is only useful for relatively well-preserved organic materials such as cloth, wood, and other non-fossilized materials.Similarly, the radioactive element uranium decomposes into lead and some other elements.How are these processes used to estimate the age of rocks?A popular and supposedly foolproof method was used on two lava flows in the Grand Canyon that should be ideal for radioactive age estimation. Young basalt rock at the Canyon's top produced an age estimate 270 million years older than ancient basalt rock at the Canyon's bottom.The problem seems to arise from basic wrong assumptions in the method (rubidium-strontium isochron).Scientists have proposed numerous age estimation methods.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating