Dating the genetic bottleneck of the america cheetah summary

Seventh, we also investigated in detail the cheetahs’ major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a cluster of ∼280 immune-related genes, given their functional role and the remarkable observation that cheetahs accepted reciprocal skin allografts from unrelated individuals as if they were immunological “self” [: Table S26).When we compared the structural organization and gene order of the MHC with other species, the cheetah and domestic cat were highly similar, but different from the dog and human.Their genetic depletion correlates with elevated juvenile mortality, extreme abnormalities in sperm development, difficulties until recently in achieving sustainable captive breeding, and increased vulnerability to infectious disease outbreaks [].

dating the genetic bottleneck of the america cheetah summary-69dating the genetic bottleneck of the america cheetah summary-82

Of these, 38,661 fragments had lengths less than the specified window size and thus were excluded from further analysis; most of those fragments are contigs with length less than 500 bp, and thus 46,787 windows of total length 2.337 Gb were built and analyzed.

c Number of SNVs in protein-coding genes in felid genomes.

Cheetahs have elongated legs, slim aerodynamic skulls and enlarged adrenal glands, liver and heart, plus semi-retractable claws that grip the earth like football cleats as they race after prey at 100 km/hour.

Cheetahs have captured the imagination of artists, writers, regal potentates and wildlife lovers for centuries.

Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates a major split occurred approximately 5–6 million years ago, leading to three groups within the ocelot lineage.

Here the genome sequence of wild-born African cheetahs reveals extreme genomic depletion in SNV incidence, SNV density, SNVs of coding genes, MHC class I and II genes, and mitochondrial DNA SNVs.Genetic loss in modern cheetahs has been debated, validated and researched on multiple levels, and is believed to derive from one or more severe population bottlenecks that occurred over time and space during the Pleistocene epoch [].That precipitous drop in number and genetic diversity, aggravated by behavioral reinforcement of immense range boundaries, led to the genetically depleted cheetah populations surviving today.Cheetah genomes are on average 95 % homozygous compared to the genomes of the outbred domestic cat (24.08 % homozygous), Virunga Mountain Gorilla (78.12 %), inbred Abyssinian cat (62.63 %), Tasmanian devil, domestic dog and other mammalian species.Demographic estimators impute two ancestral population bottlenecks: one 100,000 years ago coincident with cheetah migrations out of the Americas and into Eurasia and Africa, and a second 11,084–12,589 years ago in Africa coincident with late Pleistocene large mammal extinctions.The median lengths of homozygosity stretches in cheetahs (seven individuals), African lions (five individuals), Siberian and Bengal tigers, and the domestic cat are presented in Additional file ).

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